Frolov, A.V. 2009. New scarab-beetle species (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Aphodiinae, Orphninae) from Central Asia and Southern Africa. Entomological Review, 89(6): 685-688.

New scarab-beetle species (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Aphodiinae, Orphninae) from Central Asia and Southern Africa

A.V. Frolov

Laboratory of Insect Systematics, Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Universitetskaya nab., 1, 199034 Sankt-Petersburg, Russia. Email: aphodius@rambler.ru

Abstract

Three new scarab-beetle species are described. Aphodius moronensis sp. n. (northern Mongolia) and A. kozlovi sp. n (eastern Tibet) with modified spurs on fore tibiae in males are placed in the falcispinis group of the subgenus Agolius but are similar to the grafi group of the subgenus Chilothorax in the shape of parameres and elytral pattern. The new species differ from A. falcispinis in the shape of the spur; A. moronensis sp. n. also differs in the shape of the body and parameres. Orphnus transvaalensis sp. n. is the second apterous Orphnus species found in Southern Africa. It differs from the closely related O. harrisoni in the shape of parameres, position of the hornlike clypeal process, and in a smaller body size.

Introduction

In the present paper, new species from 2 large scarab beetle genera, Aphodius Ill. (Aphodiinae) and Orphnus Macleay (Orphninae), are described.
Aphodius moronensis sp. n. (Northern Mongolia) and A. kozlovi sp. n. (Eastern Tibet) are similar to A. falcispinis W. Kosh. and therefore placed in the subgenus Agolius Mulsant et Rey in the species group falcispinis separated by Král (1997). The shape of the parameres and elytral pattern of the two species, however, more similar to the members of the species group grafi of the subgenus Chilothorax Motschulsky (Frolov 2002). The subgenus Chilothorax as treated in my previous works (Frolov, 2001, 2002a,b) is probably a non-monophyletic group. Phylogenetic relations among the members of it as well as to the other subgenera need further research which is outside the scope of the present contribution.
In 2008, I described apterous Orphnus harrisoni from Little Karoo, arid and rich in endemics area of South Africa (Frolov, 2008). Recently I had the opportunity to examine material from State Zoological Museum, Dresden. Among this material, a specimen from Mpumalanga, similar to O. harrisoni, was found. Detailed examination of this specimen showed that it differs from O. harrisoni in a number of characters that cannot be within the inter-specific variability of the later species.
The material used for this study is housed in the following institutions: Zoological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, St.-Petersburg (ZIN); State Zoological Museum, Dresden (SMTD); Hungarian Museum of Natural History, Budapest (HNHM).

In the present paper, new species from 2 large scarab beetle genera, Aphodius Ill. (Aphodiinae) and Orphnus Macleay (Orphninae), are described.

Aphodius moronensis sp. n. (Northern Mongolia) and A. kozlovi sp. n. (Eastern Tibet) are similar to A. falcispinis W. Kosh. and therefore placed in the subgenus Agolius Mulsant et Rey in the species group falcispinis separated by Král (1997). The shape of the parameres and elytral pattern of the two species, however, more similar to the members of the species group grafi of the subgenus Chilothorax Motschulsky (Frolov 2002). The subgenus Chilothorax as treated in my previous works (Frolov, 2001, 2002a,b) is probably a non-monophyletic group. Phylogenetic relations among the members of it as well as to the other subgenera need further research which is outside the scope of the present contribution.

In 2008, I described apterous Orphnus harrisoni from Little Karoo, arid and rich in endemics area of South Africa (Frolov, 2008). Recently I had the opportunity to examine material from State Zoological Museum, Dresden. Among this material, a specimen from Mpumalanga, similar to O. harrisoni, was found. Detailed examination of this specimen showed that it differs from O. harrisoni in a number of characters that cannot be within the inter-specific variability of the later species.

The material used for this study is housed in the following institutions: Zoological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, St.-Petersburg (ZIN); State Zoological Museum, Dresden (SMTD); Hungarian Museum of Natural History, Budapest (HNHM).

Subfamily Aphodiinae

Aphodius (Agolius) moronensis Frolov, sp. n.

(Figs. 1, 6, 11).

Diagnosis. The new species differs from putatively related A. falcispinis W. Kosh. and A. kozlovi sp. n. in apical spur of anterior tibiae which is strongly curved inwards and barely visible from above, in proportions of body segments, and in more curved apices of parameres (in lateral view).

Description. Holotype, male (Fig. 1). Body length 4.2 mm. Head shiny, with blackish brown disc and somewhat paler anterior margin and sides of clypeus, relatively sparsely punctate (punctures separated by 2–4 their diameters). Clypeus wide, with feeble, almost indistinct sinuation anteriorly, rounded aside sinuation. Genae rounded, almost not separated from lateral margin of clypeus, distinctly protruding past eyes, with a few long setae. Frontoclypeal suture visible as fine line interrupted medially. Head disc without tubercles. Eye as wide as distance between eye and gula in ventral view.

Pronotum narrower than elytra base, shiny, dark brown on disc and pale brown laterally. Its anterior margin not bordered, lateral margins and base finely bordered. Disc with relatively dense double punctuation (punctures separated by 1.5–3 their diameters, small punctures about 3 times smaller than larger ones and more sparsely distributed). Posterior angles of pronotum obtusely rounded, sides with sparse yellowish setae.

Scutellum narrow, triangular, shiny, brown, sparsely punctate, smooth.

Elytra pale brown with darker sutural intervals and brown longitudinal maculae on elytral intervals 2–7. Humeral dents absent. Elytral intervals feebly convex, finely punctate (punctures separated by 4–5 their diameters). Sides and apices of elytra with minute pale setae. Elytral striae fine and shallow.

Ventral side of body brown, legs pale brown. Metasternal disc flat.

Spur of anterior tibia relatively short, rounded apically, strongly curved downwards (Fig. 11). The spur feebly visible from above, as opposed to being longer, well visible from above and distinctly curved inwards in A. falcispinis (Fig. 10). Lower spur of middle tibia acute apically, longer that 1/2 upper spur. Tarsomere 1 a bit longer that upper spur of posterior tibia and as long as 3 following tarsomeres together. Adjoining apical setae of middle and posterior tibiae short and about the same length.

Parameres relatively wide in dorsal view and somewhat more curved in lateral view in comparison to those of A. falcispinis and A. kozlovi sp. n. (Figs. 6–8). Apices of parameres acute and strongly sclerotized, with small feebly sclerotized processes on ventral sides.

Female unknown.

Etymology. The name of the species is derived from toponym Mörön.

Type material. Holotype, male with labels “Mongolia: Chövsgöl aimak 60 km WNW vоn der Stadt Мörön, 1800 m. Exp. Dr. Z. Kaszab, 1968” and “Nr. 984 19.VI.1968” (HNHM).

Aphodius (Agolius) kozlovi Frolov, sp. n.

(Figs. 2, 7, 9).

Diagnosis. A. kozlovi sp. n. is similar to A. falcispinis W. Kosh. but can be separate from it in apical spur of anterior tibiae, which is not curved inwards and apically acute. Shape of the parameres is similar in the both species but in the examined specimens of  A. kozlovi  sp. n. and A. falcispinis, the feeble sclerotized processes on the parameres of the former are somewhat shorter. Elytral pattern is more distinct in A. kozlovi  sp. n. The two later characters are probably not quite reliable and therefore separation of the females of these species can be difficult. From A. moronensis sp. n., A. kozlovi sp. n. differs in the shape of the protibial spur and relatively wider pronotum and less curved apices of the parameres in lateral view.

Description. Holotype, male (Fig. 2). Body length 4.1 mm. Head shiny, with blackish brown disc and somewhat paler anterior margin and sides of clypeus, relatively densely punctate (punctures separated by 1–2 their diameters). Clypeus wide, with feeble, almost indistinct sinuation anteriorly, widely rounded aside sinuation. Genae rounded, almost not separated from lateral margin of clypeus, distinctly protruding past eyes, with a few long setae. Frontoclypeal suture visible as fine line interrupted medially. Head disc without tubercles. Eye as wide as distance between eye and gula in ventral view.

Pronotum as wide as elytra base, shiny, dark brown on disc and pale brown laterally. Its anterior margin not bordered, lateral margins and base finely bordered. Disc with relatively dense double punctuation (punctures separated by 2–3 their diameters, small punctures about 3 times smaller than larger ones and more sparsely distributed). Posterior angles of pronotum obtusely rounded, sides with sparse short yellowish setae.

Scutellum narrow, triangular, shiny, brown, sparsely punctate, smooth.

Elytra pale brown with darker sutural intervals and brown longitudinal maculae on elytral intervals 3–7. Humeral dents absent. Elytral intervals feebly convex, finely punctate (punctures separated by 4–5 their diameters). Sides and apices of elytra with minute pale setae. Elytral striae fine and shallow.

Ventral side of body brown, legs pale brown. Metasternal disc flat.

Spur of anterior tibia relatively long, slightly curved downwards (Fig. 9), a bit shorter than 3 first tarsomeres together. Lower spur of middle tibia apically acute, longer that 1/2 upper spur. Tarsomere 1 as long as upper spur of posterior tibia and a bit shorter than 3 following tarsomeres together. Adjoining apical setae of middle and posterior tibiae short and about the same length.

Parameres of A. kozlovi sp. n. (Fig. 7) are similar to those of A. falcispinis (Fig. 8), with acute and strongly sclerotized apices and with small feebly sclerotized processes on ventral sides.

Female can be separated from male by narrower pronotum, denser punctuation on head and pronotum, and by shorter and slender apical spur on anterior tibia. The spur as long as or shorter than 2 first tarsomeres together.

Variability. Body size of the paratypes varies from 4.1 to 5.0 mm. Brown elytral pattern is less developed in some specimens than in the holotype.

Etymology. The species is named after Petr Kuz'mich Kozlov (1863–1935), renowned Russian explorer of Central Asia and leader of the expedition to Tibet in 1899–1901. During this expedition, type specimens of A. kozlovi sp. n. were collected.

Material examined. Holotype, male with labels: “Vodorazd. Golub. i Zhelt. rr. [Chang Jiang and Huang He rivers], rechka Gorin-chyu. Ok. 14.000' [ca. 4250 m], V.1901. Eksp. Kozlova” (ZIN). Paratypes: 2 females and 3 males with the same data as the holotype; 3 males with label “Bass. Golub. r., rechka Go-chyu. Ok. 13.500', V.1901. Eksp. Kozlova”; male and female with label “Yu. sklon khr. Burkhan-Budda [Burhan Budai Shan], dol. oz. Alyk-nor [Alag Hu, N 35°30', E 96°50'], 30.V.1900. Eksp. Kozlova”; male with label “Bass. Zhelt. r., rechka Serg-chyu. 13.500', V.1901. Eksp. Kozlova”; male with label “Dol. ozer. verkh. Khuan-khe, Kon. VI.1900. Eksp. Kozlova” (all labels are in Russian). All paratypes are deposited in ZIN.

 Figs. 1-13. Aphodius spp. and Orphnus spp.: (1, 6, 11) A. moronensis, sp. n., (2, 7, 9) A. kozlovi, sp. n., (8, 10) A. falcispinis W. Kosh., (3, 4, 13) O. transvaalensis, sp. n., (5, 12) O. harrisoni Frolov
Figs. 1-13. Aphodius spp. and Orphnus spp.: (1, 6, 11) A. moronensis, sp. n., (2, 7, 9) A. kozlovi, sp. n., (8, 10) A. falcispinis W. Kosh., (3, 4, 13) O. transvaalensis, sp. n., (5, 12) O. harrisoni Frolov, (1–3) habitus, (4–5) head and pronotum in lateral view, (6–8) parameres in lateral view and dorsal view, (9–11) anterior tibiae of males in dorsal and medial views, (12, 13) parameres in lateral view.

 

Subfamily Orphninae

Orphnus (Parorphnus) transvaalensis Frolov, sp. n.

(Figs. 3, 4, 13)

Diagnosis. O. transvaalensis sp. n. is most similar to another apterous Orphnus species recently described from South Africa, O. harrisoni Frolov, 2008, but differs from it in having rounded apices of parameres (Fig. 13), horn-shaped process on the anterior margin of clypeus, wider and more curved part of propleurae between lateral margin of pronotum and longitudinal keel on propleura (Fig. 4), as well as smaller body size. In O. harrisoni, apices of the parameres acute and more curved in lateral view (Fig. 12), horn-shaped process situated approximately in center of the clypeus, part of propleurae between lateral margin of pronotum and longitudinal keel narrow (Fig. 5), body length 6.9–8.0 mm.

Description. Holotype, male (Fig. 3). Body size 5.2 mm. Strongly shiny, monotonous dark-brown beetle. Clypeus wide, with somewhat convex anterior margin, rounded laterally. Genae very small, not protruding past eyes. Clypeus with slender, horn-shaped tubercle (Fig. 4). Dorsal surface of clypeus sparsely punctate. Pronotum strongly convex, with rounded lateral margins, about 1.5 times wider than long. Disc of pronotum with punctures separated by 3–4 puncture diameters on disc, punctures becoming sparser laterally and anteriorly.

Scutellum rounded apically, small (about 1/20 the length of elytra). Elytra strongly convex, coarsely punctate, without humeral umbones. Wings absent. Protibiae with shape typical to Orphnus species, with 3 relatively long outer teeth. Lateral margin basad of outer teeth not crenulate. Ventral surface of protibiae smooth with 2 rows of setae along sides and a few very long setae in the middle.

Middle and posterior legs similar in shape; metafemora and metatibiae about 1/8 longer than the mesofemora and mesotibiae. Mesofemora and metafemora almost impunctate, with apical margin curved, and with small transverse keel and 2 apical spurs. Abdominal sternites irregularly punctate, pubescent, with sparse, long setae. Sternite 6 medially as long as sternites 2–5 combined. Parameres with rounded apices in lateral view (Fig. 13). Internal sac of the aedeagus without sclerotized armature.

Etymology. The name of the species is derived from historical name of north-eastern part of South Africa (Transvaal Province).

Type material. Holotype, male with labels “Bonnefoi Transvaal [probably Bonnefoi farm in Mpumalanga, RSA, S 25°55' E 30°11']”, “Transvaal”, “Coll. C. Felsche Kanf 20, 1918”, “spec. ign.”, “Gen.? Orphnidarum”, “Orphnus species?”, “Staatl. Museum für Tierkunde Dresden” (SMTD).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to thank Otto Merkl (HNHM) and Olaf Jaeger (SMTD) for the loans of the material and to David Král (Charles University, Prague) who brought a peculiar specimen, described below as the holotype of A. moronensis, to my attention. This research was supported by the grant 07-04-00482-а from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research.

REFERENCES

  1. Frolov, A.V., "A review of Aphodius, subgenus Chilothorax (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae), of Mongolia with description of new species," Vestnik Zoologii 35 (3), 39–45 (2001).
  2. Frolov, A.V., "A Review of Aphodiines of the Subgenus Chilothorax Motschulsky, Genus Aphodius Illiger (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae), from Russia and Neighboring Countries," Entomological Review 82 (1), 1–18 (2002a).
  3. Frolov, A.V., "A review of the Aphodius Illiger, 1798 subgenus Chilothorax Motschulsky, 1859 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) of China," Russian Entomological Journal 10 (4), 395–399 (2002b).
  4. Frolov, A.V., "A new apterous species of the genus Orphnus MacLeay (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Orphninae) from South Africa," Zootaxa 1855, 65-68 (2008).
  5. Král, D., "A review of Chinese Aphodius species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Part 3: description of two new Agolius species with a key to Chinese and Himalayan species of this subgenus," Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemoslovacae 61, 53–64 (1997).