Diagnosis of Orphninae

Diagnosis of the Orphninae (based on the adult characters)


Mandibles with 2-4 scissorial teeth and a well developed mola; labrum and mandibles protruding past the clypeus and can be seen from above (except for South American Onorius, which has mandibles feebly or not visible from above).

Orphninae mandibles


Antennae 10-segmented with a 3-segmented club.

Orphninae Triodontus antennae


Scutellum well developed in winged species, reduced but distinct in wingless species.

triodontus hybalus scutellum


Wings with a distinct anal area.

Orphninae mandibles


Apex of the anterior tibia in males without a spur but normally with a few robust setae.

Triodontus itremoi fore tibia male


Anterior coxa with a longitudinal hollow on the anterior surface.

Triodontus itremoi fore coxa


Tarsi of all legs with 2 similar claws.

Orphnus claws


Middle and hind tibiae with 2 apical spurs.

Triodontus itremoi hind middle tibia


Second abdominal sternite with a sub-triangular to rounded plectrum on each side.

Triodontus itremoi plectrum


Dorsal surface of hind coxae with a flat stridulatory file basally.

Pseudorphnus stridulation file


Parameres symmetrical (except for a few species of Aegidinus).

Orphnus parameres


Bursa copulatrix sacciform, membranous. Accessory vaginal glands developed.

Aegidium bursa copulatrix


Spermatheca C-shaped, not sclerotized.

Aegidium spermathaeca


Abdomen with 2 sclerotized tergites (VII-VIII) and 6 sternites visible in situ (III-VIII).

Triodontus itremoi abdomen


Males of most species may have clypeal horn and prothoracic ridges.

Orphninae males armature